Index
Fort Manchac Declaration of War Historic Marker .................................................... Chapter 1A

The Not-Much Remembered about an Ally of the American Revolution.........................  Chapter 1B
 
Galvez and Pensacola, Florida ...........................................................................  Chapter 1C

Research with 16 documents ......................................... .................................... Chapter 1D

Galvez Grave Google walk thru Catedral Metropolitana Mexico City and Hist. Markers. ...... Chapter 1E

Appendix
  
Spanish Fort in New Orleans ............................................................................... Chapter 2

Manchac Pass Lighthouse ................................................................................... Chapter 3

Chapter 1A

Fort Manchac Declaration of War Historic Marker

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The American Revolution in Iberville Parish

Bernardo De Galvez informed his troops of the Spanish declaration of War against the English when Fort Manchac was sighted in what is now known as Iberville Parish on September 6, 1779 and the troops cheered with patriotism moving on to fight the English


This type of inspirational moment is the source of History in the making and in order to give proper recognition showing Galvez helped America, he was awarded honorary US Citizenship and his portrait was displayed in year 2014 in the Congressional Senate Foreign Relations Committee Room


Sponsored by TBD                                                                         

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Also may want to add "fourteen hundred and thirty men" marched with Galvez, to the HM statement.

Line of sight from Iberville Parish to Fort Manchac (Fort Bute)

 Historical Marker possibly located in the Historic Site area of Plaquemine

In 1775 three (3) Maps show the Mississippi River and thus Fort Manchac could have been 1 to 5 miles west as compared today, and the three locations are based on 1775 locations of the river. 

Bottom of Chapter 1 appendix has details how this determined

Chapter 1B


The Not-Much Remembered about an Ally of the American Revolution 

Why was Bernardo De Galvez not recognized more for helping the USA? Even some Historians in Louisiana do not consider him much of a deal.


Galvez supplied many arms for the Continental Army, defended France in their war with the British and fought the Battle of Baton Rouge considered one of the most important battles of the American Revolution. Finally in 2014 Galvez portrait was displayed in the a Senate Committee room.


Explore Southern History

The Battle of Baton Rouge - The American Revolution in Louisiana


Smithsonian.com

The Little-Remembered Ally Who Helped America Win the Revolution

In 2014 Galvez's portrait was displayed in the Senate Foreign Relations Committee room.

When Gálvez Came to Congress.


Galves and his accomplishments helping the American Revolution

Bernardo de Gálvez

Chapter 1C


Pensacola, Florida Recognizing Bernardo De Galvez 



with a future Very Impressive Statue

Chapter 1D


Sixteen (16) documents showing Bernardo De Galvez location and statements when he


 informed his troops of the declaration of war against the English

Below information is in my words, the article/book chapter and pages references should be reviewed


Start of the American Revolutionary War in what is known as Iberville Parish by the Spanish declaration of the war against the English.


Because Iberville Parish is where the American Revolutionary War started by Bernardo De Galvez 

declaring the Spanish War against the English, I believe an American Revolution War Site should be located in the Historic District of Plaquemine,


Three (3) documents showing Xa,b,c...

    1. Bernardo De Galvez location when he informed his troops of the declaration of Spanish war against the English

    2. Location of Fort Manchac

    3. Fort Manchac is Fort Bute

    4. Troops cheered

    5. Troops were patriotic

    6. September 6, 1779 is when the war of deceleration was given to the troops

    8. Galvez is awarded honorary U.S. Citizens


      (Xa) = Doc.1, (Xb) = Doc.2, (Xc) = Dco.3, (Xd) = Doc.4



Document 1

On the (6a)6th of September 1779 about (1a)1.5 miles from (3aa)(2a)Fort Manchac Galvez informed his troops of the declaration of war against the English and they were (4a)joyed with (5a)patriotism to fight in the American Revolutionary War.


bottom of page 126 and top of page 127


One Officer was located on (3ab)Fort Bute, bottom of page 132


HISTORY OF LOUISIANA THE SPANISH DOMINATION

https://books.google.com/books?id=4dblXtfEecMC&pg=PR5#v=onepage&q&f=false


Document 2

Only when Galvez was in (1b)sight of (2b)Manchac on (6b)September 6 he informed his men of the declaration of war.


Part 1 Paragraph 4

The Patriotic Resource American Revolution

http://www.patriotresource.com/amerrev/overview/westfla/overview.html


Document 3

On (6c)September 6 when the force reached Fort Bute. Galvez informed his troops of the Spanish declaration of war and the true purpose of their mission, (4b)cheers were given.


Chapter: Spanish march, Bottom of document

Capture of Fort Bute  From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capture_of_Fort_Bute


Document 4

(2c) Location of Fort Bute

Fort Bute

http://www.fortwiki.com/Fort_Bute


Document 5

(3b)Other names Fort Manchac, Manchac, Fort Bute


Top of page


Fort Bute/Fort New Richmond/Fort Panmure

http://gaz.jrshelby.com/fortbute.htm


Document 6

U.S. fight for independence with help of the (5b)Galvez's patriots


Top first paragraph


Gálvez’s Contribution to The American Revolutionary War

https://palantelatino.com/2011/07/01/galvezs-contribution-to-the-american-revolutionary-war/


Document 7


American Revolutionary (5c)Patriots honored


Top of second paragraph underneath picture 2


Marcha de Galvez

https://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=85223


Document 8

(3c)Fort Manchac took on the name Fort Bute


Top of page 124


The History of Louisiana

https://books.google.com/books?id=C0VEAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA124&lpg=PA124&dq=%22fort+manchac%22+%22fort+bute%22&source=bl&ots=LaIfdJhR4V&sig=LDE2fRmHtH4xYnkNP0gvOCUGnCc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj5lLnx-MnZAhUH8GMKHbKhDSoQ6AEIXTAG#v=onepage&q=%22fort%20manchac%22%20%22fort%20bute%22&f=true



Document 9

(1c)Fort Bute flag in sight


Page 414 bottom of second paragraph


LOUISIANA Comprising Sketches of Parishes Towns Events Institutions and Persons Arranged in Cyclopedic Form

https://books.google.com/books?id=CkNEAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA414&lpg=PA414&dq=in+sight+galvez+fort+manchac&source=bl&ots=7du_wCstjp&sig=fgKCCEfs9kkNBf1H7ax-APmrNTI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi9ur2Y_cnZAhUNy2MKHQ7sCy44ChDoAQg5MAM#v=onepage&q=in%20sight%20galvez%20fort%20manchac&f=false


Document 10


(4c)Cheer after cheer followed Galvez


Top of page 169


A History of Louisiana

https://books.google.com/books?id=C0VEAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA169&lpg=PA169&dq=cheered+galvez+fort+manchac&source=bl&ots=LaIfdJkT8S&sig=qlyX6I2n88lhE8kw64MKpVAIUWU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjK9s_4hMrZAhUVzWMKHXOxBx0Q6AEIQDAC#v=onepage&q=cheered%20galvez%20fort%20manchac&f=false


Document 11

On the (6d)6th of September 1779 about (1d)1.5 miles from (3da)(2d)Fort Manchac Galvez informed his troops of the declaration of war against the English and they were (4d)joyed with (5d)patriotism to fight in the American Revolutionary War.


Page 42, second to last paragraph


Proceedings of the Historical Society of East and West Baton Rouge

https://books.google.com/books?id=3esxAQAAMAAJ&lpg=PA42&ots=kVhWsXFJmP&dq=joy%20%22fort%20manchac%22&pg=PA1#v=onepage&q=joy%20%22fort%20manchac%22&f=true

Document 12


(4e)Exciting cheers from the men when informed by Galvez


Chapter: Spanish March, top of second paragraph


Battle of Fort Bute

https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Battle%20of%20Fort%20Bute&item_type=topic



Document 13

(7a)(8a) Portrait hanging ceremony in Dec. 99 2014, top of paragraph No. 8


In 2014 Galvez's portrait was displayed in the Senate Foreign Relations Committee room.

When Gálvez Came to Congress.

https://www.hiddenhispanicheritage.com/77-when-galvez-came-to-congress.html



Document 14

(7B)Video of the portrait hanging ceremony


Teresa Valcarce - Bernardo de Galvez portrait's ceremony

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XDiUVI2rmDYtext


Document 15

(7C)(8b) Mission new life for Bernardo de Galvez portrait


Congress keeps 231-year-old promise to honor hero

https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2014/12/09/congress-honors-wishes-of-continental-congress-with-galvez-portrait/20149797/


Document 16


(8c) Congress grants honorary U.S. citizenship to Bernardo de Gálvez

http://www.exteriores.gob.es/Embajadas/WASHINGTON/en/Noticias/Pages/Articulos/20141219_NOT1.aspx



Chapter 1E


Bernardo De Galvez Grave Memorial



Leave a flower for Bernardo De Galvez


Bernardo De Gálvez burial site:

Bernardo De Gálvez burial site documentation


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Bernardo De Galvez heart buried inside Mexico City 


"Catedral Matropolitana" with Google walk through


I looked at all the graves and could not find him. If you can find him please give a count from 


beginning left where you see his grave.


contact me. 


His heart is an urn and may not be at the location shown in the link.


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Bernardo De Galvez body is in one location and his heart is in a different location as shown on the above site.

The cemetery for his body is :
Panteon San Fernando AKA Church of San Fernando
Mexico City, Cuauhtémoc Borough, Distrito Federal, Mexico
Cemetery ID 2160773

The Cemetery for his heart is shown in the link
Metropolitan Cathedral of the Assumption of Mary
Also known as: Catedral Metropolitana de la Asuncian de Maria
Mexico City, Cuauhtémoc Borough, Distrito Federal, Mexico

Cemetery ID1966778
Or Cathedral of Mexico


Other references:
Bernardo de Gálvez
Viceroy of New Spain

Panteón de San Fernando

Historia del panteón


Historical Markers 

Historical Markers

Bayou Manchac Iberville River (Site has links referring the battle)


Iberville Parish should have an Historical Marker: Battle of Fort Manchac (Fort Bute)

Also a history video should be made of the sequenced march from New Orleans- Bayou Manchac- Baton Rouge ' Natchez.


Spanish battles associated Historical Markers (With links to History and Videos)

March of Galvez

Site of Spanish Battery, 1779

Battle of Baton Rouge (1779)

Writings

HISTORY OF LOUISIANA THE SPANISH DOMINATION BY CHARLES GAYARRE

 Entered according to an Act of Congress 1854


Detailed History of Fort Manchac page 127 (Fort Bute page 132)

HISTORY OF LOUISIANA THE SPANISH DOMINATION

Excerpt: 

See Bottom Of Chapter for the Galvez March, New Orleans-Fort Manchac-Baton Rouge-Natchez


...These troops when united formed a body of fourteen hundred and thirty men Although they were provided with no tents and with none of those articles which are usually deemed necessary to an army entering upon a campaign yet they marched on with unabated ardor and much order through the thick woods which at that time shaded a considerable portion of the banks of the river With a view to guard against surprises the colored men and the Indians were ordered to keep ahead of the main body of the troops at a distance of about three quarters of a mile and closely to reconnoitre the woods Next came the veteran troops whose left was protected by the river and by the artillery of the boats and whose right rested on the forest The militia formed the rear guard On the 6th of September 1779 the Spaniards came in sight of Fort Manchac situated at a distance of about one hundred and fifteen miles from New Orleans But disease and the fatigues of the journey had caused a diminution of more than one third in their number It was only when he was about a mile and a half from the fort that Galvez informed his troops of the declaration


FORT MANCHAC CARRIED BY STORM Page 127 of war against the English and of the positive instructions he had received to attack their establishments This communication was responded to with demonstrations of joy a general disposition was shown to come to close quarters with the enemy and there was exhibited a patriotic emulation as to which should distinguish himself most in the service of the king On the 7th in the morning the regulars were posted in an advantageous position with the intention of opposing them to a body of four hundred Englishmen who were said to be coming with artillery and provisions to the relief of Manchac and the assault was given to the fort by the militia with complete success...


Bayou Manchac location connected to the Mississippi River


HISTORY OF LOUISIANA THE SPANISH DOMINATION BY CHARLES GAYARRE 1854 KEDFIELD 110 AND 112 NASSAU STREET NEW YORK


Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1854 BY CHARLES GAYARRE In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York


GALVEZ READY TO ATTACK THE ENGLISH Page 125 through the ceremony of his installation amidst the increasing enthusiasm and shouts of the whole population and immediately after hastened to accelerate his preparations with the united assistance and efforts of the colonists Still concealing his real designs the governor gave out that he was going to post his troops in those places to which he expected that the first attacks of the English would be directed He ordered down to New Orleans all the boats which had been spared by the hurricane at those points on the river where its violence had not been so much felt One schooner and three gunboats were raised out of the river into which they had sunk and the provisions ammunition and artillery were put in them The artillery consisted of ten pieces one twenty four five eighteen and four four pounders under the command of Don Julien Alvarez who although his health was greatly impaired took charge with alacrity of the trust reposed in him This small fleet was to go up the river at the same time with the army in order to supply its wants On the 26th of August Galvez gave the command of New Orleans and of the garrison which was left in it to Lieutenant Colonel Don Pedro Piernas and delivered up the civil administration of the province during his absence to the contador or comptroller Don Martin Navarro He appointed as second in command to himself in the campaign which he was to undertake Colonel Don Manuel Gonzales next in rank came Don Estevan Miro and Jacinto Panis with the commissary of war Don Juan Antonio Gayarre These were to be under him the principal actors in the expedition On the 27th these arrangements being made the governor took his departure in the morning to recruit at the German and Acadian Coasts all the men that he


Page 126 DEPARTURE OF THE EXPEDITION might prevail upon to join him on the same day in the afternoon his small army put itself in motion It was composed of 170 veteran soldiers 330 recruits 20 carabiniers 60 militiamen and 80 free blacks and mulattoes of Oliver Pollock the agent of the American Congress with nine of his countrymen as volunteers making a total of 670 men without one single engineer among them says the Supplement to the Madrid Gazette which relates all the details of this expedition They were reinforced on the way by 600 men of every condition and color besides 160 Indians who had been gathered up at the German Coast at the Acadian Coast at Opelousas Attakapas and Pointe Coupee These troops when united formed a body of fourteen hundred and thirty men Although they were provided with no tents and with none of those articles which are usually deemed necessary to an army entering upon a campaign yet they marched on with unabated ardor and much order through the thick woods which at that time shaded a considerable portion of the banks of the river With a view to guard against surprises the colored men and the Indians were ordered to keep ahead of the main body of the troops at a distance of about three quarters of a mile and closely to reconnoitre the woods Next came the veteran troops whose left was protected by the river and by the artillery of the boats and whose right rested on the forest The militia formed the rear guard On the 6th of September 1779 the Spaniards came in sight of Fort Manchac situated at a distance of about one hundred and fifteen miles from New Orleans But disease and the fatigues of the journey had caused a diminution of more than one third in their number It was only when he was about a mile and a half from the fort that Galvez informed his troops of the declaration


FORT MANCHAC CARRIED BY STORM Page 127 of war against the English and of the positive instructions he had received to attack their establishments This communication was responded to with demonstrations of joy a general disposition was shown to come to close quarters with the enemy and there was exhibited a patriotic emulation as to which should distinguish himself most in the service of the king On the 7th in the morning the regulars were posted in an advantageous position with the intention of opposing them to a body of four hundred Englishmen who were said to be coming with artillery and provisions to the relief of Manchac and the assault was given to the fort by the militia with complete success Gilbert Antoine de St Maxent brother in law to ex Governor Unzaga was the first who entered the fort through one of its embrasures The garrison was composed of a captain a first lieutenant and a second lieutenant with twenty privates of whom one was killed and five escaped with one of the lieutenants The rest remained prisoners of war This certainly was no great exploit On the 8th the inventory of the fort was made six days of rest were allowed to the troops and on the 13th they resumed their march for Baton Rouge which is only fifteen miles from Manchac At a mile and a half from Baton Rouge the army took its quarters and the artillery was landed from the boats Already had Grand Pre with all the forces which he had been able to bring with him from Pointe Coupee occupied a position between Baton Rouge and Natchez in order to interrupt all communication between these two places as he actually did after having possessed himself of two English posts one of which was on Thompson's Creek and the other on the Amite forcing their garrisons to surrender themselves prisoners of war.


Page 128 SIEGE OF BATON ROUGE Governor Galvez having with some officers reconnoitre the fort of Baton Rouge saw that it would be impossible to carry it by storm on account of its strength This fort was surrounded by a ditch eighteen feet wide and nine in depth it had besides very high walls with a parapet protected with clievaux defrise and a garrison of four hundred regulars and one hundred militiamen and was supplied with thirteen pieces of heavy artillery The governor also considered that the greater portion of his forces consisted of natives of the country among whom there were many heads of families and that a victory would be dearly bought by the blood which it would cost and the desolation it would spread in the colony Therefore resisting the repeated and pressing solicitations of his troops to be led to the assault he resolved to open trenches and establish batteries There was near the fort a wood which projected towards it in the shape of a triangle This at the first glance seemed the most favorable spot from which to attack and this the governor chose to deceive the enemy and to divert their attention from the point where he intended to carry on his works Thither he sent a detachment of militia supported by the colored companies and the Indians in order that under cover of the trees and during the night they should make as much noise as possible and simulate an attack The English wasted and spent in vain their ammunition by firing with ball and grape at that part of the wood from which they thought they would be assailed whilst in the meantime the Spaniards without being incommoded were erecting their batteries within musket shot of the fort behind a garden which concealed their operations The English discovered the stratagem when


BATON ROUGE AND NATCHEZ TAKEN Page 129 it was too late and when the besiegers had succeeded in sheltering themselves from the shot of their enemies On the following day the 21st of September at daybreak the Spanish batteries under the direction of Don Julien Alvarez were plied with such accuracy and effect that notwithstanding the briskness of the fire of the besieged the fort was so dismantled by half past three in the afternoon that the English sent two officers with a flag of truce to propose articles of capitulation Galvez would assent to no terms but those he was willing to offer which were that the garrison should surrender at discretion and at the same time that Fort Panmure at Natchez should be delivered up to him with its garrison composed of eighty grenadiers and their officers The English accepted these conditions and after a delay of twenty four hours which was granted to them during which they were observed to be engaged in burying a considerable number of dead bodies they came out with military honors and marched five hundred paces from the fort when they delivered up their arms and flags and remained prisoners of war The veteran troops which thus surrendered consisted of three hundred and seventy five men At the same time Galvez despatched a captain with fifty men to take possession of Fort Panmure at Natchez which is about one hundred and thirty miles distant from Baton Rouge This fort it would have been very difficult to carry by force because it was situated on an elevated and steep hill and was difficult of access In these two forts of Baton Rouge and Natchez was found a considerable number of militiamen and free negroes with arms in their hands They were set free on account of the difficulty of keeping securely so many prisoners Whilst the expedition was meeting with so signal a 9


Appendix 

Fort Manchac Locations from qty = 3 year 1700 maps


Below link has three year 1700 maps and they were over laid with present maps. Located Fort Manchac area from approximate 0 miles to 1 mile up stream of the Mississippi River from Bayou Manchac. Also located where Galvez was when he seen Fort Manchac. #1 locations are red, #2 locations are blue and #3 locations are green. These area locations were performed by visual marking on a present map from overlay compare maps at the year 1700 map site and may not be very accurate but the as-seen Fort Manchac circles are well within Iberville Parish boundaries and, I believe, should be considered 100% in Iberville parish because of long distance to the parish boundaries. This should be verified by an expert.


Basis for Fort Manchac location is from a plot which shows Fort Manchac about 0.5 miles north of Bayou Manchac linked below and two other documents showing Fort Manchac is close to Bayou Manchac. See #2 reference documents in my 16 documents references of my original sent PDF of Fort Manchac and the Spanish Declaration of War

against the English, Historic Marker document.


Document 4

(2c) Location of Fort Bute

Fort Bute

http://www.fortwiki.com/Fort_Bute



Link and explanation of the maps.

Old Maps Online

http://www.oldmapsonline.org/map/rumsey/0346.030


There are 3 maps with 1775 published dates, click on the first one, click view this map, click VIEW IN GEOREFERENCER, click overlay and compare at the bottom right, slide the blue dot “course of the river” for overlay status viewing, and zoom to Bayou Manchac. Select data points to see where the 1775 map is compared to present map. Possible location of Fort Manchac can be seen and how far down stream Galvez would need to be to see Fort Manchac. Do this for the other two maps for 1775.

Below is my approximate locations and squared location are where Fort Manchac is with circled locations being where Galvez may have been when he seen Fort Manchac.


All three as-seen by Galvez of Fort Manchac is well within Iberville Parish and Fort Manchac locations are borderline in Iberville Parish.


Interesting, two maps show the Mississippi River may have flowed close to Crescent in Iberville Parish in 1775. In all three maps the river was more west than present and placed Galvez even more into Iberville parish than previous map I used in my presented PDF.


If technologies allow, a communication card can be embedded in the Historic Marker and if a cell phone is close to the marker, history and videos can be viewed via the cell phone while at the marker. Existing markers, statues or 3D downsize models can have this card sealed in a copper or metal holder and welded to the marker etc. The card reading should also reference the information site such as a Museum or Library for a fuller Tourist experience of the Galvez location.

Chapter 2


Spanish Fort in New Orleans


Chapter 3

Manchac Pass Lighthouse


Manchac Pass Lighthouse and Picture Gallery,  Bottom of Site shows the Pass Manchac Lighthouse Lantern

Room is located in Lake Pontchartrain Basin Maritime Museum, in Madisonville.

Pass Manchac Light



Google coordinates for Lighthouse location and is about 19 feet south east of the Google structure visible edge.


Right click on below link and new tab, click on light blue teardrop for lighthouse coordinates

Lighthouse Location



Lake Pontratrain Basin Maritime Museum